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Wargame offers multiple challenges, which only the best strategy master will solve. The Germans' final strategic offensive in the Soviet Union ended with their defence against a major Soviet counteroffensive that lasted into August.
The Kursk offensive was the last on the scale of and that the Wehrmacht was able to launch; subsequent offensives would represent only a shadow of previous German offensive might.
The Soviet multi-stage summer offensive started with the advance into the Orel salient. Although intense battles of movement throughout late July and into August saw the Tigers blunting Soviet tank attacks on one axis, they were soon outflanked on another line to the west as the Soviet forces advanced down the Psel , and Kharkov was abandoned for the final time on 22 August.
The German forces on the Mius , now comprising the 1st Panzer Army and a reconstituted 6th Army, were by August too weak to repulse a Soviet attack on their own front, and when the Red Army hit them they retreated all the way through the Donbass industrial region to the Dnieper, losing half the farmland that Germany had invaded the Soviet Union to exploit.
At this time Hitler agreed to a general withdrawal to the Dnieper line, along which was meant to be the Ostwall , a line of defence similar to the Westwall Siegfried Line of fortifications along the German frontier in the west.
The main problem for the Wehrmacht was that these defences had not yet been built; by the time Army Group South had evacuated eastern Ukraine and begun withdrawing across the Dnieper during September, the Soviet forces were hard behind them.
A second attempt by the Red Army to gain land using parachutists, mounted at Kaniv on 24 September, proved as disappointing as at Dorogobuzh eighteen months previously.
The paratroopers were soon repelled — but not until still more Red Army troops had used the cover they provided to get themselves over the Dnieper and securely dug in.
As September ended and October started, the Germans found the Dnieper line impossible to hold as the Soviet bridgeheads grew. Important Dnieper towns started to fall, with Zaporozhye the first to go, followed by Dnepropetrovsk.
Finally, early in November the Red Army broke out of its bridgeheads on either side of Kiev and captured the Ukrainian capital, at that time the third largest city in the Soviet Union.
This battle also enabled Army Group South to recapture Korosten and gain some time to rest. However, on Christmas Eve the retreat began anew when the First Ukrainian Front renamed from the Voronezh Front struck them in the same place.
The Soviet advance continued along the railway line until the Polish—Soviet border was reached on 3 January In the second week of January they swung north, meeting Vatutin's tank forces which had swung south from their penetration into Poland and surrounding ten German divisions at Korsun—Shevchenkovsky, west of Cherkassy.
Hitler's insistence on holding the Dnieper line, even when facing the prospect of catastrophic defeat, was compounded by his conviction that the Cherkassy pocket could break out and even advance to Kiev, but Manstein was more concerned about being able to advance to the edge of the pocket and then implore the surrounded forces to break out.
By 16 February the first stage was complete, with panzers separated from the contracting Cherkassy pocket only by the swollen Gniloy Tikich river.
Under shellfire and pursued by Soviet tanks, the surrounded German troops, among whom were the 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking , fought their way across the river to safety, although at the cost of half their number and all their equipment.
They assumed the Red Army would not attack again, with the spring approaching, but on 3 March the Soviet Ukrainian Front went over to the offensive.
Having already isolated the Crimea by severing the Perekop isthmus , Malinovsky's forces advanced across the mud to the Romanian border, not stopping on the river Prut.
After two weeks' of heavy fighting, the 1st Panzer managed to escape the pocket, at the cost of losing almost the entire heavy equipment.
At this point, Hitler sacked several prominent generals, Manstein included. In April, the Red Army took back Odessa , followed by 4th Ukrainian Front's campaign to restore control over the Crimea, which culminated in the capture of Sevastopol on 10 May.
Along Army Group Centre's front, August saw this force pushed back from the Hagen line slowly, ceding comparatively little territory, but the loss of Bryansk, and more importantly Smolensk, on 25 September cost the Wehrmacht the keystone of the entire German defensive system.
The 4th and 9th armies and 3rd Panzer Army still held their own east of the upper Dnieper, stifling Soviet attempts to reach Vitebsk.
In a lightning campaign, the Germans were pushed back from Leningrad and Novgorod was captured by Soviet forces. To Stalin, the Baltic Sea seemed the quickest way to take the battles to the German territory in East Prussia and seize control of Finland.
The German army group "Narwa" included Estonian conscripts , defending the re-establishment of Estonian independence.
Accordingly, they stripped troops from Army Group Centre, whose front still protruded deep into the Soviet Union. The Germans had transferred some units to France to counter the invasion of Normandy two weeks before.
The Belorussian Offensive codenamed Operation Bagration , which was agreed upon by Allies at the Tehran Conference in December and launched on 22 June , was a massive Soviet attack, consisting of four Soviet army groups totalling over divisions that smashed into a thinly held German line.
More than 2. At the points of attack, the numerical and quality advantages of the Soviet forces were overwhelming.
The Red Army achieved a ratio of ten to one in tanks and seven to one in aircraft over their enemy.
The Germans crumbled. The capital of Belarus , Minsk , was taken on 3 July, trapping some , Germans.
Ten days later the Red Army reached the prewar Polish border. Bagration was, by any measure, one of the largest single operations of the war. The offensive at Estonia claimed another , Soviet soldiers, , of them classed as dead.
The Soviet advance in the south continued into Romania and, following a coup against the Axis-allied government of Romania on 23 August, the Red Army occupied Bucharest on 31 August.
Romania and the Soviet Union signed an armistice on 12 September. The rapid progress of Operation Bagration threatened to cut off and isolate the German units of Army Group North bitterly resisting the Soviet advance towards Tallinn.
Despite a ferocious attack at the Sinimäed Hills , Estonia, the Soviet Leningrad Front failed to break through the defence of the smaller, well-fortified army detachment "Narwa" in terrain not suitable for large-scale operations.
Three armies were pitted there against the Finns, among them several experienced guards rifle formations. The attack breached the Finnish front line of defence in Valkeasaari on 10 June and the Finnish forces retreated to their secondary defence line, the VT-line.
The Soviet attack was supported by a heavy artillery barrage, air bombardments and armoured forces. The VT-line was breached on 14 June and after a failed counterattack in Kuuterselkä by the Finnish armoured division, the Finnish defence had to be pulled back to the VKT-line.
After heavy fighting in the battles of Tali-Ihantala and Ilomantsi , Finnish troops finally managed to halt the Soviet attack. Whether Stalin was unable or unwilling to come to the aid of the Polish resistance is disputed.
Two months later, the Soviet forces won the battle and entered Slovakia. The Soviet Union finally entered Warsaw on 17 January , after the city was destroyed and abandoned by the Germans.
Over three days, on a broad front incorporating four army fronts , the Red Army launched the Vistula—Oder Offensive across the Narew River and from Warsaw.
The Soviets outnumbered the Germans on average by 5— in troops, in artillery, in tanks and in self-propelled artillery.
During the full course of the Vistula—Oder operation 23 days , the Red Army forces sustained , total casualties killed, wounded and missing and lost 1, tanks and assault guns.
On 25 January , Hitler renamed three army groups. In the south, the German attempts, in Operation Konrad , to relieve the encircled garrison at Budapest failed and the city fell on 13 February.
On 6 March, the Germans launched what would be their final major offensive of the war, Operation Spring Awakening , which failed by 16 March.
OKW claim German losses of 77, killed, , wounded and , missing, with a total of , men, on the Eastern Front during January and February The East Prussian operation , though often overshadowed by the Vistula—Oder operation and the later battle for Berlin, was in fact one of the largest and costliest operations fought by the Red Army throughout the war.
During the period it lasted 13 January — 25 April , it cost the Red Army , casualties, and 3, tanks and assault guns. During the first two weeks of April, the Red Army performed their fastest front redeployment of the war.
While this redeployment was in progress, gaps were left in the lines and the remnants of the German 2nd Army, which had been bottled up in a pocket near Danzig, managed to escape across the Oder.
The Soviet offensive had two objectives. Because of Stalin's suspicions about the intentions of the Western Allies to hand over territory occupied by them in the post-war Soviet sphere of influence , the offensive was to be on a broad front and was to move as rapidly as possible to the west, to meet the Western Allies as far west as possible.
But the over-riding objective was to capture Berlin. The two were complementary because possession of the zone could not be won quickly unless Berlin was taken.
Another consideration was that Berlin itself held strategic assets, including Adolf Hitler and part of the German atomic bomb program.
The offensive to capture central Germany and Berlin started on 16 April with an assault on the German front lines on the Oder and Neisse rivers.
After several days of heavy fighting the Soviet 1BF and 1UF punched holes through the German front line and were fanning out across central Germany.
They were now free to move west towards the British 21st Army Group and north towards the Baltic port of Stralsund. On 29 and 30 April, as the Soviet forces fought their way into the centre of Berlin, Adolf Hitler married Eva Braun and then committed suicide by taking cyanide and shooting himself.
Helmuth Weidling , defence commandant of Berlin, surrendered the city to the Soviet forces on 2 May. German losses in this period of the war remain impossible to determine with any reliability.
It included the phrase All forces under German control to cease active operations at hours Central European time on 8 May The war in Europe was over.
In the Soviet Union the end of the war is considered to be 9 May, when the surrender took effect Moscow time.
This date is celebrated as a national holiday — Victory Day — in Russia as part of a two-day 8—9 May holiday and some other post-Soviet countries.
The ceremonial Victory parade was held in Moscow on 24 June. The German Army Group Centre initially refused to surrender and continued to fight in Czechoslovakia until about 11 May.
A small German garrison on the Danish island of Bornholm refused to surrender until they were bombed and invaded by the Soviets.
The island was returned to the Danish government four months later. After the German defeat, Joseph Stalin promised his allies Truman and Churchill, that he would attack the Japanese within 90 days of the German surrender.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria began on 8 August , with an assault on the Japanese puppet states of Manchukuo and neighbouring Mengjiang ; the greater offensive would eventually include northern Korea , southern Sakhalin , and the Kuril Islands.
Apart from the Battles of Khalkhin Gol , it marked the only military action of the Soviet Union against Imperial Japan ; at the Yalta Conference , it had agreed to Allied pleas to terminate the neutrality pact with Japan and enter the Second World War's Pacific theatre within three months after the end of the war in Europe.
While not a part of the Eastern Front operations, it is included here because the commanders and much of the forces used by the Red Army came from the European Theatre of operations and benefited from the experience gained there.
In many ways this was a 'perfect' operation, delivered with the skill gained during the bitter fighting with the Wehrmacht and Luftwaffe over four years.
The distinctly brutal nature of warfare on the Eastern Front was exemplified by an often wilful disregard for human life by both sides.
It was also reflected in the ideological premise for the war, which also saw a momentous clash between two directly opposed ideologies.
Aside from the ideological conflict, the mindframe of the leaders of Germany and the Soviet Union , Hitler and Stalin respectively, contributed to the escalation of terror and murder on an unprecedented scale.
Stalin and Hitler both disregarded human life in order to achieve their goal of victory. This included the terrorisation of their own people, as well as mass deportations of entire populations.
All these factors resulted in tremendous brutality both to combatants and civilians that found no parallel on the Western Front.
According to Time magazine : "By measure of manpower, duration, territorial reach and casualties, the Eastern Front was as much as four times the scale of the conflict on the Western Front that opened with the Normandy invasion.
Army Chief of Staff , calculated that without the Eastern Front, the United States would have had to double the number of its soldiers on the Western Front.
In War II Russia occupies a dominant position and is the decisive factor looking toward the defeat of the Axis in Europe. While in Sicily the forces of Great Britain and the United States are being opposed by 2 German divisions, the Russian front is receiving attention of approximately German divisions.
Whenever the Allies open a second front on the Continent, it will be decidedly a secondary front to that of Russia; theirs will continue to be the main effort.
Without Russia in the war, the Axis cannot be defeated in Europe, and the position of the United Nations becomes precarious.
With Germany crushed, there is no power in Europe to oppose her tremendous military forces. The war inflicted huge losses and suffering upon the civilian populations of the affected countries.
Behind the front lines, atrocities against civilians in German-occupied areas were routine, including those carried out as part of the Holocaust.
German and German-allied forces treated civilian populations with exceptional brutality, massacring whole village populations and routinely killing civilian hostages see German war crimes.
According to British historian Geoffrey Hosking , "The full demographic loss to the Soviet peoples was even greater: since a high proportion of those killed were young men of child-begetting age, the postwar Soviet population was 45 to 50 million smaller than post projections would have led one to expect.
After the war, following the Yalta conference agreements between the Allies, the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia were displaced to the west of the Oder—Neisse line , in what became one of the largest forced migrations of people in world history.
Much of the combat took place in or close to populated areas, and the actions of both sides contributed to massive loss of civilian life and tremendous material damage.
The largest number of civilian deaths in a single city was 1. Wolves and foxes fleeing westward from the killing zone, as the Soviet army advanced between and , were responsible for a rabies epidemic that spread slowly westwards, reaching the coast of the English Channel by The Soviet Union and Nazi Germany were both ideologically driven states by Soviet communism and by Nazism respectively , in which the foremost political leaders had near-absolute power.
The character of the war was thus determined by the political leaders and their ideology to a much greater extent than in any other theatre of World War II.
Adolf Hitler exercised tight control over the German war-effort, spending much of his time in his command bunkers most notably at Rastenburg in East Prussia , at Vinnitsa in Ukraine , and under the garden of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin.
At crucial periods in the war he held daily situation-conferences at which he used his remarkable talent for public speaking to overwhelm opposition from his generals and from the OKW staff with rhetoric.
In part because of the unexpected degree of German success in the Battle of France despite the warnings of the professional military Hitler believed himself a military genius, with a grasp of the total war-effort that eluded his generals.
In August , when Walther von Brauchitsch commander-in-chief of the Wehrmacht and Fedor von Bock appealed for an attack on Moscow, Hitler instead ordered the encirclement and capture of Ukraine, in order to acquire the farmland, industry, and natural resources of that country.
In the winter of — Hitler believed that his obstinate refusal to allow the German armies to retreat had saved Army Group Centre from collapse.
He later told Erhard Milch :. I had to act ruthlessly. I had to send even my closest generals packing, two army generals, for example … I could only tell these gentlemen, "Get yourself back to Germany as rapidly as you can — but leave the army in my charge.
And the army is staying at the front. The success of this hedgehog defence outside Moscow led Hitler to insist on the holding of territory when it made no military sense, and to sack generals who retreated without orders.
Officers with initiative were replaced with yes-men or with fanatical Nazis. The disastrous encirclements later in the war — at Stalingrad , Korsun and many other places — resulted directly from Hitler's orders.
This idea of holding territory led to another failed plan, dubbed [ by whom? Many divisions became cut off in "fortress" cities, or wasted uselessly in secondary theatres, because Hitler would not sanction retreat or voluntarily abandon any of his conquests.
Frustration at Hitler's leadership in the war was one of the factors in the attempted coup d'etat of , but after the failure of the 20 July Plot Hitler considered the army and its officer corps suspect and came to rely on the Schutzstaffel SS and Nazi party members to prosecute the war.
Hitler's direction of the war ultimately proved disastrous for the German Army, though the skill, loyalty, professionalism and endurance of officers and soldiers enabled him to keep Germany fighting to the end.
Winterbotham wrote of Hitler's signal to Gerd von Rundstedt to continue the attack to the west during the Battle of the Bulge :. From experience we had learned that when Hitler started refusing to do what the generals recommended, things started to go wrong, and this was to be no exception.
Joseph Stalin bore the greatest responsibility for some of the disasters at the beginning of the war for example, the Battle of Kiev , but equally deserves praise for the subsequent success of the Soviet Red Army , which depended on the unprecedentedly rapid industrialisation of the Soviet Union , which Stalin's internal policy had made the first priority throughout the s.
Stalin's Great Purge of the Red Army in the late s involved the legal prosecution of many of the senior command, many of whom the courts convicted and sentenced to death or to imprisonment.
White supremacy has ideological foundations that date back to 17th-century scientific racism , the predominant paradigm of human variation that helped shape international relations and racial policy from the latter part of the Age of Enlightenment until the late 20th century marked by decolonization and the abolition of apartheid in South Africa in , followed by that country's first multiracial elections in White supremacy was dominant in the United States both before and after the American Civil War , and it also persisted for decades after the Reconstruction Era.
Frank Baum wrote: "The Whites, by law of conquest , by justice of civilization, are masters of the American continent, and the best safety of the frontier settlements will be secured by the total annihilation of the few remaining Indians.
The Naturalization Act of limited U. Professor Leland T. Saito of the University of Southern California writes: "Throughout the history of the United States, race has been used by whites for legitimizing and creating difference and social, economic and political exclusion.
The denial of social and political freedom to minorities continued into the midth century, resulting in the civil rights movement.
After the mids, white supremacy remained an important ideology to the American far-right. Some academics argue that outcomes from the United States Presidential Election reflect ongoing challenges with white supremacy.
Psychologist Janet Helms suggested that the normalizing behaviors of social institutions of education, government, and healthcare are organized around the "birthright of On July 23, , Christopher A.
Wray , the head of the FBI , said at a Senate Judiciary Committee hearing that the agency had made around domestic terrorism arrests since October 1, , and that the majority of them were connected in some way with white supremacy.
Wray said that the Bureau was "aggressively pursuing [domestic terrorism] using both counterterrorism resources and criminal investigative resources and partnering closely with our state and local partners," but said that it was focused on the violence itself and not on its ideological basis.
A similar number of arrests had been made for instances of international terrorism. In the past, Wray has said that white supremacy was a significant and "pervasive" threat to the U.
On September 20, , the acting Secretary of Homeland Security , Kevin McAleenan , announced his department's revised strategy for counter-terrorism, which included a new emphasis on the dangers inherent in the white supremacy movement.
McAleenan called white supremacy one of the most "potent ideologies" behind domestic terrorism-related violent acts. In a speech at the Brookings Institution , McAleenan cited a series of high-profile shooting incidents, and said "In our modern age, the continued menace of racially based violent extremism, particularly white supremacist extremism, is an abhorrent affront to the nation, the struggle and unity of its diverse population.
White supremacy has also played a part in U. Over the course of the 19th , 20th , and 21st centuries, material across the spectrum of academic disciplines has been taught with an overemphasis on White culture, contributions, and experiences, and a corresponding underrepresentation of non-White groups' perspectives and accomplishments.
He states that the language used to tell history minimizes the violent acts committed by White people over the centuries, citing the use of the words "discovery," "colonization," and " New World " when describing what was ultimately a European conquest of the western hemisphere and its indigenous peoples as examples.
In an analysis of American history textbooks, she highlights word choices that repetitively "normalize" slavery and the inhumane treatment of Black people p.
She also notes the frequent showcasing of White abolitionists and actual exclusion of Black abolitionists, as well as the fact that Black Americans had been mobilizing for abolition for centuries before the major White American push for abolition in the 19th century.
She ultimately asserts the presence of a masternarrative that centers Europe and its associated peoples White people in school curriculum, particularly as it pertains to history.
Elson provides detailed information about the historic dissemination of simplistic and negative ideas about non-White races.
White culture, at the turn of the 20th century. White supremacy has been depicted in music videos , feature films , documentaries , journal entries, and on social media.
The silent drama film The Birth of a Nation followed the rising racial, economic, political, and geographic tensions leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation and the Southern Reconstruction era that was the genesis of the Ku Klux Klan.
David Duke , a former Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan , believed that the Internet was going to create a "chain reaction of racial enlightenment that will shake the world.
There certainly were hate groups before the Internet and social media. It could be to raise money, or it could be to engage in attacks on social media.
Some of the activity is virtual. Some of it is in a physical place. Social media has lowered the collective-action problems that individuals who might want to be in a hate group would face.
You can see that there are people out there like you. That's the dark side of social media. With the emergence of Twitter in , and platforms such as Stormfront which was launched in , an alt-right portal for white supremacists with similar beliefs, both adults and children, was provided in which they were given a way to connect.
Daniels discussed the emergence of other social media outlets such as 4chan and Reddit , which meant that the "spread of white nationalist symbols and ideas could be accelerated and amplified.
In the latest wave of white supremacy, in the age of the Internet, Blee sees the movement as having primarily become a virtual one, in which divisions between groups become blurred: "[A]ll these various groups that get jumbled together as the alt-right and people who have come in from the more traditional neo-Nazi world.
We're in a very different world now. A series on YouTube hosted by the grandson of Thomas Robb , the national director of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, "presents the Klan's ideology in a format aimed at kids — more specifically, white kids.
A sign that greets people who enter the town states " Diversity is a code for white genocide. The comic book super hero Captain America , in an ironic co-optation, has been used for dog whistle politics by the alt-right in college campus recruitment in In , Winston Churchill told the Palestine Royal Commission : "I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia.
I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.
A number of Southern African nations experienced severe racial tension and conflict during global decolonization , particularly as white Africans of European ancestry fought to protect their preferential social and political status.
Racial segregation in South Africa began in colonial times under the Dutch Empire , and it continued when the British took over the Cape of Good Hope in Apartheid was introduced as an officially structured policy by the Afrikaner -dominated National Party after the general election of Apartheid's legislation divided inhabitants into four racial groups—"black", "white", "coloured", and "Indian", with coloured divided into several sub-classifications.
In Rhodesia a predominantly white government issued its own unilateral declaration of independence from the United Kingdom during an unsuccessful attempt to avoid immediate majority rule.
Nazism promoted the idea of a superior Germanic people or Aryan race in Germany during the early 20th century.
Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority were combined in the 19th century, with white supremacists maintaining the belief that white people were members of an Aryan " master race " which was superior to other races, particularly the Jews , who were described as the "Semitic race", Slavs , and Gypsies , which they associated with "cultural sterility".
Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany, emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan or Germanic peoples and Jewish culture.
As the Nazi Party 's chief racial theorist, Alfred Rosenberg oversaw the construction of a human racial "ladder" that justified Hitler's racial and ethnic policies.
Rosenberg promoted the Nordic theory , which regarded Nordics as the "master race", superior to all others, including other Aryans Indo-Europeans.
In establishing a restrictive entry system for Germany in , Hitler wrote of his admiration for America's immigration laws: "The American Union categorically refuses the immigration of physically unhealthy elements, and simply excludes the immigration of certain races.
Make powerful allies and join in an alliance to utterly destroy your enemies. The best strategist knows how to deal with others.
Trade, conquer and rise your empire. By , 80 per cent of civilians and 20 per cent of POWs were freed, others were re-drafted, or sent to labour battalions.
Two per cent of civilians and 14 per cent of the POWs were sent to the Gulag. The official Polish government report of war losses prepared in reported 6,, victims out of a population of 27,, ethnic Poles and Jews; this report excluded ethnic Ukrainian and Belarusian losses.
Although the Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention , it is generally accepted that it considered itself bound by the provisions of the Hague convention.
This 'note' was left unanswered by Third Reich officials. Soviet repressions also contributed into the Eastern Front's death toll.
Mass repression occurred in the occupied portions of Poland as well as in the Baltic states and Bessarabia. Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD massacred large numbers of inmates in most of their prisons in Western Belarus and Western Ukraine, while the remainder was to be evacuated in death marches.
The Soviet victory owed a great deal to the ability of its war industry to outperform the German economy, despite the enormous loss of population and land.
Stalin's five-year plans of the s had resulted in the industrialisation of the Urals and central Asia. In , thousands of trains evacuated critical factories and workers from Belarus and Ukraine to safe areas far from the front lines.
Once these facilities were reassembled east of the Urals, production could be resumed without fear of German bombing.
As the Soviet Union's manpower reserves ran low from onwards, the great Soviet offensives had to depend more on equipment and less on the expenditure of lives.
The Germans, on the other hand, could rely on a large slave workforce from the conquered countries and Soviet POWs.
American exports and technical expertise also enabled the Soviets to produce goods that they wouldn't have been able to on their own. German production of explosives from to was 1.
Consumption on all fronts during the same period was 1. Soviet armoured fighting vehicle production was greater than the Germans in , the Soviet Union manufactured 24, tanks and self-propelled guns to Germany's 19, The Soviets incrementally upgraded existing designs, and simplified and refined manufacturing processes to increase production, and were helped by a mass infusion of harder to produce goods such as aviation fuel, machine tools, trucks, and high-explosives from Lend-Lease, allowing them to concentrate on a few key industries.
Meanwhile, Germany had been cut off from foreign trade for years by the time it invaded the USSR, was in the middle of two extended and costly theatres at air and sea that further limited production Battle of the Atlantic and Defence of the Reich , and was forced to devote a large segment of its expenditures to goods the Soviets could cut back on such as trucks or which would never even be used against the Soviets such as ships.
This included , trucks, 12, armoured vehicles including 7, tanks , 11, aircraft and 1. Five thousand tanks were provided by the British and Canada.
Total British supplies were about four million tons. After the defeat at Stalingrad, Germany geared completely towards a war economy, as expounded in a speech given by Joseph Goebbels , the Nazi propaganda minister , in the Berlin Sportpalast , increasing production in subsequent years under Albert Speer 's the Reich armaments minister direction, despite the intensifying Allied bombing campaign.
The fighting involved millions of Axis and Soviet troops along the broadest land front in military history.
Rüdiger Overmans states that it seems entirely plausible, while not provable, that one half of these men were killed in action and the other half died in Soviet custody.
Over According to the Narkomat of Defence order No. The huge death toll was attributed to several factors, including brutal mistreatment of POWs and captured partisans, the large deficiency of food and medical supplies in Soviet territories, and atrocities committed mostly by the Germans against the civilian population.
The multiple battles and the use of scorched earth tactics destroyed agricultural land , infrastructure, and whole towns, leaving much of the population homeless and without food.
According to a report prepared by the General Staff of the Army issued in December , materiel losses in the East from the period of 22 June until November stood at 33, armoured vehicles of all types tanks, assault guns, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and others.
Paul Winter, Defeating Hitler , states "these figures are undoubtedly too low". The Soviets lost 96, tanks, tank destroyers, self-propelled guns and assault guns, as well as 37, other armoured vehicles such as armoured cars and semi-tracked trucks for a total of , armoured vehicles lost.
The Soviets also lost , aircraft combat and non-combat causes , including 46, in combat. Polish Armed Forces in the East , initially consisting of Poles from Eastern Poland or otherwise in the Soviet Union in —, began fighting alongside the Red Army in , and grew steadily as more Polish territory was liberated from the Nazis in — When the Axis countries of Central Europe were occupied by the Soviets, they changed sides and declared war on Germany see Allied Commissions.
Most of those who joined were Soviet POWs. These foreign volunteers in the Wermacht were primarily used in the Eastern Front but some were assigned to guard the beaches of Normandy.
Hitler's notorious Commissar Order called for Soviet political commissars, who were responsible for ensuring that Red Army units remained politically reliable, to be summarily shot when identified amongst captured troops.
Axis troops who captured Red Army soldiers frequently shot them in the field or shipped them to concentration camps to be used as forced labourers or killed.
It is estimated that between 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Soviet Offensive For a discussion of the term itself, see Great Patriotic War term.
Soviet occupation of Central and Eastern Europe. Finland until Soviet Union Czechoslovakia Poland. Air and naval support :.
Eastern Front. Soviet leadership. Related topics. Main article: Germany—Soviet Union relations, — See also: Aufbau Ost and Lossberg study.
Main article: Operation Barbarossa. Soviet gains. German gains. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Main article: Soviet invasion of Manchuria. Main article: Adolf Hitler. Main article: Joseph Stalin. From there Hungary became a German puppet state until the end of the war.
The Atlantic. Retrieved 26 November Soviet Casualties and Combat Losses. The USSR sustained Moscow According to the same source, total Soviet civilian deaths within post-war borders amounted to The numbers for other Central European and German civilian casualties are not included here.
Greenwood Publishing Group. Leiden, Boston: Brill. We begin where we ended six centuries ago. We stop the perpetual Germanic march towards the south and west of Europe, and have the view on the country in the east.
We finally put the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-war and go over to the territorial policy of the future.
But if we speak today in Europe of new land, we can primarily only to Russia and the border states subjects him think. Central European History. Source: Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression, Vol.
Stuart Stein, University of the West of England. Archived from the original on 2 March Whether nations live in prosperity or starve to death … interests me only in so far as we need them as slaves for our Kultur Pantheon Books.
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It includes all personnel in the German Army including the security units , Waffen SS, Luftwaffe ground forces and even naval coastal artillery in the East.
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Almost half of TNT the main explosive filler for most kinds of ammunition or raw materials for its production came from abroad in — Tooze, Adam; Geyer, Michael eds.
The economics of the war with Nazi Germany. Cambridge University Press. II, p. Scandinavian Economic History Review. Beyer; Stephen A.The No. 1 real time WW2 strategy game to be played in multiplayer. Play for free online or without download on mobile!. Railguns: though not the most powerful weapon in the game, They are the most powerful Artillery piece with a range far superior to the standard Artillery and the sea-faring Battleship. For this reason, they are the weapon of choice for seige operations against enemy fortresses containing large numbers of artillery and also fairly useful for eliminating enemy Battleships that stray too close to. The Game. In Supremacy , you become head of a mighty nation in precarious Europe after the turn of the century. You face the challenge to become the undisputed sovereign leader of the whole continent using smart diplomacy or simply the brute force of your glorious armies. By April , the Soviet Supreme Command agreed to assume the defensive so as to "consolidate the captured ground." According to Zhukov, "During the winter offensive, the forces of the Western Front had advanced from 70 to km, which somewhat improved the overall operational and strategic situation on the Western sector.": Composed by Jeroen Tel. In areas such as EstoniaLatviaand Lithuania which had been annexed by the Soviet Union in the Wehrmacht was tolerated by a relatively more significant part of the native population. Wikimedia Commons. Bet3000 Hamburg concessions were combined with Spicy Spins discipline: Order No. Andrew Herbert rated it really liked it Dec 25, The 4th and 9th armies and 3rd Panzer Army still held their own east of the upper Dnieper, stifling Soviet attempts to reach Vitebsk.